4. He said there had been a hold-up
Pune cursorul pe text pentru a vedea traducerea.
Direct Speech and Reported Speech (Indirect Speech) are used as follows:
Reported Speech implies a backshift in time. This backshift is reflected in the verb tense, but also in other elements of the sentence (demonstratives, adverbs).
|Backshift of tenses||Direct Speech||Reported Speech|
|Present Simple → Past Simple||"John is the reporter", he said.||He said that John was the reporter.|
|Present Continuous → Past Continuous||"I am writing the newsletter", she said.||She said that she was writing the newsletter.|
|Past Simple → Past Perfect||"The radio station closed in June", Mark told me.||Mark told me that the radio station had closed in June.|
|Present Perfect → Past Perfect||"The co-anchor has arrived", Jeremy announced.||Jeremy announced that the co-anchor had arrived.|
|Past Perfect no change||"The news had started before dinner time", they informed me.||They informed me that the news had started before dinner time.|
|Past Continuous →
no change / Past Perfect Continuous
|Jane: "I was reading the newspaper at 5 o'clock."||Jane claimed that she was reading / had been reading at 5 o'clock.|
|Present Perfect Continuous →
Past Perfect Continuous
|Sally: "The victim has been shaking for two hours."||Sally reported that the victim had been shaking for two hours.|
|Past Perfect Continuous no change||The reporter: "They had been looking for clues all evening."||The reporter said that they had been looking for clues all evening.|
|Future Simple with Will → Would||"I will cover that story", Mike suggested.||Mike suggested that he would cover that story.|
|Be going to Future → Was going to||"They are going to arrive at the crime scene", said Wanda.||Wanda said that they were going to arrive at the crime scene.|
|Modal Can → Modal Could||"I can give you a brochure", the agent said.||The agent said that he could give me a brochure.|
|Modal May → Modal Might||The editor warned: "The publishing company may reject it."||The editor warned us that the publishing company might reject it.|
|Modal Must → Had to||"We must contact the typography", he said.||He said that we had to contact the typography.|
|Modals Would, Could, Should no change||"We should choose a different headline", said Beatrice.||Beatrice said that we should choose a different headline.|
Direct Speech:"I like the British TV channels", she said.
She said that she liked British TV channels. or
She said that she likes British TV channels.
He said that John was the reporter. = He said John was the reporter.
Note that, in the table below, we will omit the word that in all the examples.
|Direct Speech||Reported Speech||Example|
|this||that||"This article is captivating", she said.
She said that article was captivating.
|these||those||Jenny: "These are our brochures."
Jenny said those were our brochures.
|here||there||"The press conference will take place here", he informed us.
He informed us the press conference would take place there.
|now||then||"I can't talk now", Bob told me.
Bob told me he couldn't talk then.
|today||that day||Tommy: "Today is a big day."
Tommy said that day was a big day.
|tomorrow||the following day||"The show starts tomorrow", announced Hanna.
Hanna announced the show started the following day.
|yesterday||the previous day||"The armed robbery took place yesterday," he said.
He said the armed robbery had taken place the previous day.
|the day after tomorrow||in two days' time||"The suspect will be interrogated the day after tomorrow," he said.
He said the suspect would be interrogated in two days' time.
|the day before yesterday||two days before||"We talked the day before yesterday", she said.
She said we had talked two days before.
|last (week)||the previous (week)||Carrie: "A terrifying event happened last week."
Carrie said a terrifying event had happened the previous week.
|next (month)||the following (month)||Mr. Roth: "We will make a public announncement next month."
Mr. Roth said they would make a public announcement the following month.
|(two years) ago||(two years) before||"The series started two years ago", Ryan said.
Ryan said the series had started two years before.
Common reporting verbs are: to say, to tell, to report, to ask, to announce, to inform, to suggest, to mention, to advise, to order, to admit, to deny, to claim, to recall, to warn, to promise, to reply, to invite, to complain, to imply etc.
e.g.: She promised she would call us.
e.g.: Mary replied that she had never been there before.
e.g.: The Smiths implied that we had stolen their Christmas decorations.
Reported Speech can be used for making statements, for asking questions or for making requests.
"The commercial break has already started", complained Richard.
Richard complained that the commercial break had already started.
"I don't know what happened", said April.
April said that she didn't know what had happened. / April denied that she knew what had happened.
"Should I rewrite the article?" asked Sam.
Sam asked if (or whether) he should rewrite the article.
"Please tell me what the time is", she asked me.
She asked me to tell her what the time was.
"Give me that newspaper!" he ordered me.
He ordered me to give him that newspaper.
"The cover story will be written by Lisa", the editor-in-chief said.
The editor-in-chief said that the cover story would be written by Lisa.